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Personal Care Aides
SOC Code: 39-9021.00

Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility. Duties performed at a place of residence may include keeping house (making beds, doing laundry, washing dishes) and preparing meals. May provide assistance at non-residential care facilities. May advise families, the elderly, convalescents, and persons with disabilities regarding such things as nutrition, cleanliness, and household activities.

Sample of reported job titles: Caregiver, Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Home Care Aide, Home Health Care Provider, Medication Aide, Patient Care Assistant (PCA), Personal Care Aide, Personal Care Assistant (PCA), Personal Care Attendant (PCA), Resident Care Assistant (RCA)


  • Administer bedside or personal care, such as ambulation or personal hygiene assistance.
  • Prepare and maintain records of client progress and services performed, reporting changes in client condition to manager or supervisor.
  • Perform healthcare-related tasks, such as monitoring vital signs and medication, under the direction of registered nurses or physiotherapists.
  • Participate in case reviews, consulting with the team caring for the client, to evaluate the client's needs and plan for continuing services.
  • Care for individuals or families during periods of incapacitation, family disruption, or convalescence, providing companionship, personal care, or help in adjusting to new lifestyles.
  • Perform housekeeping duties, such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes or dishes, or running errands.
  • Instruct or advise clients on issues such as household cleanliness, utilities, hygiene, nutrition, or infant care.
  • Plan, shop for, or prepare nutritious meals or assist families in planning, shopping for, or preparing nutritious meals.
  • Transport clients to locations outside the home, such as to physicians' offices or on outings, using a motor vehicle.
  • Provide clients with communication assistance, typing their correspondence or obtaining information for them.
  • Train family members to provide bedside care.

Technology Skills

  • Calendar and scheduling software - August Systems Visit Wizard
  • Data base reporting software - Mi-Co Mi-Forms
  • Electronic mail software - Email software; Voltage SecureMail
  • Medical software - MEDITECH software
  • Optical character reader OCR or scanning software - Computer reading software
  • Spreadsheet software
  • Word processing software

Tools Used

  • Adjustable widemouth pliers
  • Adjustable wrenches
  • Alarm systems
  • Back or lumbar or sacral orthopedic softgoods - Back braces
  • Bedpans for general use - Bedpans
  • Blood pressure cuff kits - Blood pressure cuffs
  • Braille devices for the physically challenged - Braille printing software
  • Canes or cane accessories - Canes
  • Crutches or crutch accessories - Crutches
  • Digital camcorders or video cameras - Digital video cameras
  • Digital cameras
  • Electric vibrators for rehabilitation or therapy - Mechanical vibrating massage devices
  • Electronic blood pressure units - Automatic blood pressure machines
  • Electronic medical thermometers - Electronic patient thermometers
  • Glucose monitors or meters - Glucometers
  • Hammers
  • Hearing aids for the physically challenged - Hearing aid devices
  • Lower extremity prosthetic devices - Lower-body prosthetic devices
  • Medical acoustic stethoscope or accessory - Mechanical stethoscopes
  • Oxygen therapy delivery system products accessories or its supplies - Oxygen delivery equipment
  • Paging controllers - Paging systems
  • Patient bed or table scales for general use - Bed scales
  • Patient lifts or accessories - Hoyer lifts; Mechanical patient lifts; Patient lifting devices
  • Patient shifting boards or accessories - Transfer boards
  • Personal computers
  • Screwdrivers
  • Shower or bath chairs or seats for the physically challenged - Hydraulic tub seats; Shower chairs
  • Specimen collection container - Specimen collection containers
  • Tablet computers
  • Telecommunication devices TDD or teletypewriters TTY for the physically challenged - Telecommunication devices TDD; Teletypewriters TTY
  • Upper extremity prosthetic devices - Upper-body prosthetic devices
  • Vascular or compression apparel or support - Therapeutic elastic stockings
  • Voice synthesizers for the physically challenged - Speech synthesizers
  • Walkers or rollators - Walkers
  • Walking braces
  • Wheelchairs


  • Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Psychology - Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.


  • Service Orientation - Actively looking for ways to help people.
  • Social Perceptiveness - Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Instructing - Teaching others how to do something.
  • Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Time Management - Managing one's own time and the time of others.


  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Deductive Reasoning - The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Speech Clarity - The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
  • Written Comprehension - The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
  • Inductive Reasoning - The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Speech Recognition - The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Written Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.


  • Interest code: SRC
    • Social - Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
    • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
    • Conventional - Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Work Context

  • Physical Proximity - 68% responded “Very close (near touching).”
  • Contact With Others - 70% responded “Constant contact with others.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team - 68% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate - 51% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions - 52% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Standing - 47% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work - 42% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Telephone - 44% responded “Every day.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results - 60% responded “Very important results.”
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets - 66% responded “Every day.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making - 60% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Walking and Running - 42% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety - 52% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions - 32% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Time Pressure - 39% responded “Every day.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others - 35% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body - 36% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections - 54% responded “Every day.”
  • Consequence of Error - 38% responded “Extremely serious.”
  • Letters and Memos - 36% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks - 29% responded “Important.”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results - 48% responded “High responsibility.”
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People - 26% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”


Percentage of RespondentsEducation Level Required
54%High school diploma or equivalent
17%Less than high school diploma
17%Some college, no degree

Work Styles

  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Concern for Others - Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Self Control - Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Stress Tolerance - Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Independence - Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Social Orientation - Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Leadership - Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Innovation - Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Work Values

  • Relationships - Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
  • Support - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
  • Achievement - Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Wages & Trends

  • Median wages (2017)
    • $11.11 hourly, $23,100 annual
  • Employment (2016)
    • 2,016,000 employees
  • Projected growth (2016-2026)
    • Much faster than average (15% or higher)
  • Projected job openings (2016-2026)
    • 414,300

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