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Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
SOC Code: 19-1023.00

Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.

Sample of reported job titles: Aquatic Biologist, Conservation Resources Management Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Biologist, Fisheries Biologist, Fisheries Management Biologist, Habitat Biologist, Migratory Game Bird Biologist, Wildlife Biologist, Wildlife Manager, Zoologist


  • Make recommendations on management systems and planning for wildlife populations and habitat, consulting with stakeholders and the public at large to explore options.
  • Inventory or estimate plant and wildlife populations.
  • Disseminate information by writing reports and scientific papers or journal articles, and by making presentations and giving talks for schools, clubs, interest groups and park interpretive programs.
  • Check for, and ensure compliance with, environmental laws, and notify law enforcement when violations are identified.
  • Study animals in their natural habitats, assessing effects of environment and industry on animals, interpreting findings and recommending alternative operating conditions for industry.
  • Inform and respond to public regarding wildlife and conservation issues, such as plant identification, hunting ordinances, and nuisance wildlife.
  • Study characteristics of animals, such as origin, interrelationships, classification, life histories and diseases, development, genetics, and distribution.
  • Organize and conduct experimental studies with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings.
  • Analyze characteristics of animals to identify and classify them.
  • Coordinate preventive programs to control the outbreak of wildlife diseases.
  • Prepare collections of preserved specimens or microscopic slides for species identification and study of development or disease.
  • Raise specimens for study and observation or for use in experiments.
  • Collect and dissect animal specimens and examine specimens under microscope.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as fundraising, public relations, budgeting, and supervision of zoo staff.

Technology Skills

  • Analytical or scientific software - Computer modeling software; HATPRO; SAS ; Statistical software
  • Data base user interface and query software - Data entry software ; Database management software; Microsoft Access ; Relational database software
  • Electronic mail software - Email software; Microsoft Outlook
  • Internet browser software - Web browser software
  • Map creation software - ESRI ArcGIS software ; ESRI ArcView; Geographic information system GIS software
  • Object or component oriented development software - Python ; R
  • Office suite software - Corel WordPerfect; Microsoft Office
  • Presentation software - Microsoft PowerPoint
  • Project management software - Microsoft Project
  • Spreadsheet software - IBM Lotus 1-2-3; Microsoft Excel
  • Web platform development software - Microsoft Active Server Pages ASP
  • Word processing software - Microsoft Word

Tools Used

  • Adjustable widemouth pliers
  • Air compressors
  • Air rifles or air handguns - Dart guns
  • All terrain vehicles tracked or wheeled - All terrain vehicles ATV; Four wheel drive 4WD vehicles
  • Animal control traps - Animal traps
  • Archery bows
  • Axes
  • Benchtop centrifuges
  • Binocular light compound microscopes - Compound binocular light microscopes; Compound microscopes
  • Binoculars
  • Boat Trailer - Boat trailers
  • Calipers - Vernier calipers
  • Calorimeters
  • Canoes or kayaks - Canoes
  • Clinometers
  • Commercial fishing nets - Dip net samplers; Gill nets; Jellyfish scoops; Plankton nets (see all 7 examples)
  • Compasses
  • Conductivity meters
  • Counters - Counting chambers
  • Desktop computers
  • Digital camcorders or video cameras - Tree top peeper and video probe systems
  • Digital cameras
  • Dissection kits or supplies - Dissecting tools
  • Dissolved oxygen meters
  • Diving instruments or accessories - Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus SCUBA equipment
  • Dropping pipettes
  • Dry heat or hot air sterilizers - Sterilizing ovens
  • Drying cabinets or ovens - Drying ovens
  • Egg inspection or collecting equipment - Egg candlers
  • Entomological catching equipment - Aerial nets; Odonata nets; Sweeping nets
  • Flow sensors - Flow meters
  • Flying insect control traps - Light traps
  • Forced air or mechanical convection general purpose incubators - Laboratory mechanical convection incubators
  • Forestry increment borers - Tree corers
  • Fume hoods or cupboards - Fume hoods
  • Global positioning system GPS receiver - Geodetic ground global positioning system GPS receivers
  • Handheld refractometers or polarimeters - Portable refractometers
  • Handheld thermometer - Water thermometers
  • Hard hats
  • Laboratory balances - Monopan balances
  • Laboratory beakers
  • Laboratory forceps
  • Laboratory funnels
  • Laboratory graduated cylinders - Graduated glass laboratory cylinders
  • Ladders - Extension ladders
  • Laser printers
  • Magnifiers - Hand lenses
  • Masks or accessories - Dust masks
  • Masks or fins or snorkels - Snorkels
  • Micrometers
  • Notebook computers
  • Personal computers
  • Personal motorized watercraft - Jet skis
  • Petri plates or dishes - Petri dishes
  • pH meters
  • Photo attachments for microscopes - Photomicroscopes
  • Pisciculture supplies - Fish traps
  • Portable data input terminals - Dataloggers
  • Protective gloves - Leather gloves; Nitrile gloves
  • Pull spring balances - Spring scales
  • Radio frequency transmitters or receivers - Animal transmitters; Radio telemetry equipment
  • Rafts - Rubber rafts
  • Rangefinders - Laser hypsometers
  • Recreational motorboats - Small power boats
  • Rulers
  • Safety glasses
  • Safety harnesses or belts - Climbing belts
  • Salinity meter - Salinity meters
  • Sample changers - Folsom plankton splitters
  • Single gas monitors - Carbon dioxide CO2 monitors
  • Sledge hammer - Sledgehammers
  • Snowmobiles or snow scooter - Snowmobiles
  • Specimen collection container - Scintillation vials; Specimen collection containers; Water sample collection containers
  • Spectrometers
  • Sporting traps - Culvert traps; Foot snares; Mist nets
  • Steam autoclaves or sterilizers - Steam autoclaves
  • Stereo or dissecting light microscopes - Dissecting microscopes
  • Still cameras - 35 millimeter cameras
  • Surface thermometers - Field thermometers
  • Surgical scalpels or knives or blades or trephines or accessories - Stainless steel scalpel blades
  • Tape measures - Metric measuring tapes
  • Telescopes - Spotting scopes
  • Test sieves - Mesh sieves; Sieve buckets
  • Two way radios
  • Ultra cold or ultralow upright cabinets or freezers - Laboratory freezers
  • Volumeters
  • Water pumps
  • Water samplers - Benthic samplers; Ekman dredges; Multiplate samplers; Secchi disks


  • Biology - Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Law and Government - Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
  • Geography - Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
  • Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
  • Computers and Electronics - Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
  • Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
  • Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.


  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Reading Comprehension - Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
  • Science - Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Writing - Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
  • Active Learning - Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
  • Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
  • Systems Analysis - Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
  • Time Management - Managing one's own time and the time of others.
  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Social Perceptiveness - Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
  • Systems Evaluation - Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
  • Instructing - Teaching others how to do something.
  • Management of Personnel Resources - Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
  • Mathematics - Using mathematics to solve problems.
  • Negotiation - Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
  • Persuasion - Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
  • Service Orientation - Actively looking for ways to help people.


  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Written Comprehension - The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
  • Deductive Reasoning - The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Inductive Reasoning - The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Written Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Speech Clarity - The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Speech Recognition - The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Category Flexibility - The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
  • Selective Attention - The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
  • Fluency of Ideas - The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
  • Originality - The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
  • Far Vision - The ability to see details at a distance.
  • Flexibility of Closure - The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
  • Mathematical Reasoning - The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
  • Number Facility - The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
  • Perceptual Speed - The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.


  • Interest code: IR
    • Investigative - Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
    • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

Work Context

  • Electronic Mail - 98% responded “Every day.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions - 75% responded “Every day.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions - 67% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work - 60% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Telephone - 54% responded “Every day.”
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled - 48% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team - 53% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Contact With Others - 43% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results - 64% responded “Important results.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate - 37% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week - 52% responded “40 hours.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety - 39% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Deal With External Customers - 38% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others - 41% responded “Very important.”
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment - 45% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results - 36% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making - 31% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather - 43% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Spend Time Sitting - 46% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Level of Competition - 46% responded “Moderately competitive.”
  • Letters and Memos - 33% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Consequence of Error - 33% responded “Very serious.”
  • Time Pressure - 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”


Percentage of RespondentsEducation Level Required
42%Bachelor's degree
35%Master's degree
13%Doctoral degree

Work Styles

  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Independence - Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Leadership - Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Self Control - Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Stress Tolerance - Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Concern for Others - Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Innovation - Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Work Values

  • Achievement - Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
  • Recognition - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
  • Working Conditions - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Wages & Trends

  • Median wages (2017)
    • $29.95 hourly, $62,290 annual
  • Employment (2016)
    • 19,000 employees
  • Projected growth (2016-2026)
    • Average (5% to 9%)
  • Projected job openings (2016-2026)
    • 1,900

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