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Occupation Information

SOC Code: 47-2181.00

Cover roofs of structures with shingles, slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, or related materials. May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.

Sample of reported job titles: Commercial Roofer, Industrial Roofer, Metal Roofing Mechanic, Residential Roofer, Roof Mechanic, Roof Service Technician, Roofer, Roofing Foreman, Roofing Technician, Sheet Metal Roofer


  • Inspect problem roofs to determine the best repair procedures.
  • Remove snow, water, or debris from roofs prior to applying roofing materials.
  • Set up scaffolding to provide safe access to roofs.
  • Estimate materials and labor required to complete roofing jobs.
  • Cement or nail flashing strips of metal or shingle over joints to make them watertight.
  • Install partially overlapping layers of material over roof insulation surfaces, using chalk lines, gauges on shingling hatchets, or lines on shingles.
  • Cut felt, shingles, or strips of flashing to fit angles formed by walls, vents, or intersecting roof surfaces.
  • Apply plastic coatings, membranes, fiberglass, or felt over sloped roofs before applying shingles.
  • Install, repair, or replace single-ply roofing systems, using waterproof sheet materials such as modified plastics, elastomeric, or other asphaltic compositions.
  • Attach roofing paper to roofs in overlapping strips to form bases for other materials.
  • Cover roofs or exterior walls of structures with slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, gravel, gypsum, or related materials, using brushes, knives, punches, hammers, or other tools.
  • Waterproof or damp-proof walls, floors, roofs, foundations, or basements by painting or spraying surfaces with waterproof coatings or by attaching waterproofing membranes to surfaces.
  • Apply reflective roof coatings, such as special paints or single-ply roofing sheets, to existing roofs to reduce solar heat absorption.
  • Apply alternate layers of hot asphalt or tar and roofing paper to roofs.
  • Install vapor barriers or layers of insulation on flat roofs.
  • Cover exposed nailheads with roofing cement or caulking to prevent water leakage or rust.
  • Smooth rough spots to prepare surfaces for waterproofing, using hammers, chisels, or rubbing bricks.
  • Glaze top layers to make a smooth finish or embed gravel in the bitumen for rough surfaces.
  • Mop or pour hot asphalt or tar onto roof bases.
  • Install attic ventilation systems, such as turbine vents, gable or ridge vents, or conventional or solar-powered exhaust fans.
  • Install skylights on roofs to increase natural light inside structures or to reduce energy costs.
  • Apply gravel or pebbles over top layers of roofs, using rakes or stiff-bristled brooms.
  • Install solar roofing systems that have energy-collecting photovoltaic panels built into roofing membranes, shingles, or tiles.
  • Spray roofs, sidings, or walls to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures, using spray guns, air compressors, or heaters.
  • Attach solar panels to existing roofs, according to specifications and without damaging roofing materials or the structural integrity of buildings.
  • Punch holes in slate, tile, terra cotta, or wooden shingles, using punches and hammers.
  • Apply modular soil- and plant-containing grids over existing roof membranes to create green roofs.
  • Install layers of vegetation-based green roofs, including protective membranes, drainage, aeration, water retention and filter layers, soil substrates, irrigation materials, and plants.

Technology Skills

  • Analytical or scientific software - Energy cost evaluation software; Exele TopView; Humidity and vapor drive calculation software; Roofing Calculator
  • Computer aided design CAD software - AppliCad Roof Wizard; ASR Software TopView LE; DigiTools Roof CAD; Ziatek RoofDraw (see all 7 examples)
  • Data base user interface and query software - CADAFIS; Insight Direct ServiceCEO; RoofLogic; Wintac Pro (see all 5 examples)
  • Office suite software - Microsoft Office
  • Operating system software - Microsoft Windows
  • Project management software - Maintenance record software
  • Spreadsheet software - Microsoft Excel
  • Word processing software - Microsoft Word

Tools Used

  • Air compressors
  • Air dryers - Hot air blowers; Roof dryers
  • Angle brackets - Adjustable roof brackets; Fixed-roof brackets
  • Anvils - Slaters' anvils
  • Axes
  • Bituminous material distributors - Bitumen applicators
  • Blocks or pulleys - Hoisting wheels; Long ladder hoisting wheels; Short ladder hoisting wheels
  • Blow torch - Double-lock seamers; Propane torches; Single seamers; Torches (see all 7 examples)
  • Caulking guns
  • Chalk lines - Chalk line markers; Roofing layout tapes
  • Chip Spreaders - Gravelers; Hot or cold process power gravelers
  • Claw hammer - Claw hammers
  • Cold chisels - Grooving tools; Seaming chisels
  • Cutting machines - Power roof cutters
  • Desktop computers
  • Fall protection lanyard - Safety lanyards
  • Hammers - Nail hammers; Plastic hammers; Seaming hammers; Slate hammers (see all 5 examples)
  • Hatchets - Carpenters' hatchets; Metric roofing hatchets; Standard roofing hatchets; Wood shingling hatchets (see all 5 examples)
  • Heat guns - Hot air welding machines
  • Heat tracing equipment - Infrared thermometers
  • Hip and ridge - Roofing spades; Shake tear-off tools; Shingle rippers; Tear-off shovels (see all 8 examples)
  • Hoists - Hydraulic swing beam hoists; Power hoists; Shingle ladder hoists; Trolley track hoists
  • Hydraulic hand crimp tool - Hand crimpers
  • Kettle exchangers - Double-burner pump kettles; Single burner draw kettles; Single burner pump kettles
  • Ladders - Chicken ladders
  • Laser printers
  • Liquid leak detectors - Electronic leak detectors
  • Magnetic tools - Rolling magnetic sweepers
  • Manual press brake - Bench-mount hand brakes
  • Measuring wheels for distance - Measuring wheels
  • Metal folding machine - Cleat benders
  • Notebook computers
  • Personal computers
  • Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers - Personal digital assistants PDA
  • Pipe bending tools - Downspout crimpers
  • Pneumatic nail drivers - Pneumatic air nailers
  • Power drills
  • Power nail guns - Roofing coil nailers
  • Power saws - Circular saws; Gas-powered chop saws; Reciprocating saws; Shingle saws
  • Protractors - Roof pitch finders
  • Pry bars - Spud bars; Spud/scraper bars; Wrecking bars
  • Pullers - Nail pullers; Nail strippers; Scraper/pullers
  • Punches or nail sets or drifts - Hand punches
  • Punching pliers - Core cutters
  • Putty knives
  • Rivet tools - Pop rivet guns
  • Roofing mop - Tar mops
  • Safety harnesses or belts - Fall arrest systems; Safety belts
  • Safety hooks - Roof hooks
  • Safety shoes - Korker cleats; Roofing shoes
  • Scaffolding - Ladder jacks
  • Scaffolding handrail - Roofing guardrails
  • Scaffolding stabilizers - Ladder braces; Ladder levelers; Ladder standoffs
  • Scales - Triangular scales
  • Seam welder - Seam finishing machines; Semiautomatic welding machines
  • Shears - Clipping shears; Foot squaring shears; Membrane slitters; Slate cutters
  • Sheet metal pliers - Hand roofing double seamers; Seaming pliers; Tinsmith pliers; Two-handed edgers
  • Shovels - Shingle shovels
  • Soldering iron - Heat welders; Soldering irons
  • Staple guns - Hammer tackers
  • Swaging tools - Rotary machines
  • Tape measures - Measuring tapes
  • Tinners snips - Compound snips; Snips; Straight snips; Tin snips
  • Tongs - Sheet metal hand tongs
  • Trowels - Pointing trowels; Round-point trowels
  • Utility knives - Angle knives; Draw knives; Roofing knives
  • Welding masks - Welding hoods
  • Wood chisels


  • Building and Construction - Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  • Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Public Safety and Security - Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
  • Education and Training - Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
  • Design - Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
  • Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
  • Mechanical - Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  • Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.


  • Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Operation and Control - Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
  • Operation Monitoring - Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Time Management - Managing one's own time and the time of others.


  • Gross Body Equilibrium - The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
  • Extent Flexibility - The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Trunk Strength - The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness - The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
  • Manual Dexterity - The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
  • Multilimb Coordination - The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
  • Gross Body Coordination - The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Stamina - The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
  • Control Precision - The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
  • Far Vision - The ability to see details at a distance.
  • Finger Dexterity - The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
  • Static Strength - The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
  • Deductive Reasoning - The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Inductive Reasoning - The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Selective Attention - The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
  • Speech Recognition - The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Visualization - The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.


  • Interest code: RC
    • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
    • Conventional - Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Work Context

  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather - 98% responded “Every day.”
  • Exposed to High Places - 90% responded “Every day.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions - 70% responded “Every day.”
  • Telephone - 57% responded “Every day.”
  • Contact With Others - 56% responded “Constant contact with others.”
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets - 54% responded “Every day.”
  • Exposed to Contaminants - 65% responded “Every day.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate - 54% responded “Very important.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety - 58% responded “High responsibility.”
  • Time Pressure - 41% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures - 48% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team - 57% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable - 47% responded “Every day.”
  • Physical Proximity - 54% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls - 41% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Level of Competition - 39% responded “Highly competitive.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work - 52% responded “Some freedom.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making - 47% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Standing - 41% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions - 36% responded “Every day.”
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled - 65% responded “Every day.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others - 34% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment - 37% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions - 51% responded “Some freedom.”
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body - 36% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings - 29% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results - 34% responded “Important results.”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results - 33% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions - 54% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling - 36% responded “About half the time.”
  • Spend Time Walking and Running - 38% responded “About half the time.”
  • Deal With External Customers - 30% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting - 30% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles - 37% responded “Less than half the time.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week - 45% responded “40 hours.”
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection - 24% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Consequence of Error - 34% responded “Fairly serious.”
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions - 39% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”


Percentage of RespondentsEducation Level Required
49%High school diploma or equivalent
26%Less than high school diploma
11%Post-secondary certificate

Work Styles

  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Self Control - Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Concern for Others - Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Innovation - Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Independence - Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Leadership - Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Stress Tolerance - Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Social Orientation - Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Work Values

  • Support - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
  • Independence - Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
  • Working Conditions - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Wages & Trends

  • Median wages (2017)
    • $18.74 hourly, $38,970 annual
  • Employment (2016)
    • 146,000 employees
  • Projected growth (2016-2026)
    • Faster than average (10% to 14%)
  • Projected job openings (2016-2026)
    • 16,500

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