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Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders
SOC Code: 51-3091.00

Operate or tend food or tobacco roasting, baking, or drying equipment, including hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, and vacuum drying equipment.

Sample of reported job titles: Bean Roaster, Coffee Roaster, Line Operator, Machine Operator, Oven Operator, Oven Technician, Roast Master, Roaster, Roaster Operator, Roasterman

Tasks

  • Observe, feel, taste, or otherwise examine products during and after processing to ensure conformance to standards.
  • Set temperature and time controls, light ovens, burners, driers, or roasters, and start equipment, such as conveyors, cylinders, blowers, driers, or pumps.
  • Observe temperature, humidity, pressure gauges, and product samples and adjust controls, such as thermostats and valves, to maintain prescribed operating conditions for specific stages.
  • Observe flow of materials and listen for machine malfunctions, such as jamming or spillage, and notify supervisors if corrective actions fail.
  • Record production data, such as weight and amount of product processed, type of product, and time and temperature of processing.
  • Weigh or measure products, using scale hoppers or scale conveyors.
  • Operate or tend equipment that roasts, bakes, dries, or cures food items such as cocoa and coffee beans, grains, nuts, and bakery products.
  • Signal coworkers to synchronize flow of materials.
  • Read work orders to determine quantities and types of products to be baked, dried, or roasted.
  • Fill or remove product from trays, carts, hoppers, or equipment, using scoops, peels, or shovels, or by hand.
  • Take product samples during or after processing for laboratory analyses.
  • Test products for moisture content, using moisture meters.
  • Clear or dislodge blockages in bins, screens, or other equipment, using poles, brushes, or mallets.
  • Start conveyors to move roasted grain to cooling pans and agitate grain with rakes as blowers force air through perforated bottoms of pans.
  • Open valves, gates, or chutes or use shovels to load or remove products from ovens or other equipment.
  • Clean equipment with steam, hot water, and hoses.
  • Smooth out products in bins, pans, trays, or conveyors, using rakes or shovels.
  • Install equipment, such as spray units, cutting blades, or screens, using hand tools.
  • Push racks or carts to transfer products to storage, cooling stations, or the next stage of processing.
  • Dump sugar dust from collectors into melting tanks and add water to reclaim sugar lost during processing.

Technology Skills

  • Data base user interface and query software - Data entry software
  • Electronic mail software - Email software
  • Spreadsheet software - Microsoft Excel

Tools Used

  • Belt conveyors - Conveyor bakers
  • Blowers - Hot air blowers
  • Carts - Material moving carts
  • Commercial use plastic shovels - Food handling shovels
  • Commercial use scoops - Flood handling scoops
  • Cooking machinery - Baking equipment; Melting tanks
  • Cooling machine - Cooling machine pans
  • Dissolved oxygen meters - Dissolved oxygen sensors
  • Drying racks - Tobacco hanging racks
  • Food drying equipment - Box barns; Conveyor dryers; Tobacco boxes; Vacuum food drying equipment (see all 8 examples)
  • Furnaces - Gas furnaces; Oil furnaces
  • Heat exchangers - Heat exchanger conversion kits; Heat exchanger systems
  • Hopper scale - Automatic hopper scales
  • Humidifiers - Humidification systems
  • Hydraulic pumps - Dough pumps
  • Hygrometers - Humidity sensors
  • Loading equipment - Rack loaders
  • Metallic bins - Food storage bins
  • Moisture meters
  • Portable data input terminals - Handheld dataloggers
  • Pressure gauge - Equipment pressure gauges
  • Remote reading thermometers - Remote thermometers
  • Roasting machinery - Centrifugal coffee roasters; Roasting equipment; Solid drum coffee roasters; Tangential coffee roasters (see all 9 examples)
  • Roller conveyors - Scale conveyors
  • Spectrometers - Photospectrometers
  • Temperature gauge - Equipment temperature gauges
  • Thermostats - Machine temperature controls
  • Turntables - Conveyor turntables

Knowledge

  • Production and Processing - Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Food Production - Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
  • Public Safety and Security - Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.

Skills

  • Operation Monitoring - Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Operation and Control - Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
  • Quality Control Analysis - Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
  • Reading Comprehension - Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
  • Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
  • Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
  • Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Social Perceptiveness - Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Abilities

  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness - The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
  • Category Flexibility - The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
  • Control Precision - The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Perceptual Speed - The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
  • Selective Attention - The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
  • Speech Recognition - The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Auditory Attention - The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
  • Finger Dexterity - The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
  • Flexibility of Closure - The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
  • Hearing Sensitivity - The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
  • Manual Dexterity - The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
  • Multilimb Coordination - The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Rate Control - The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
  • Speech Clarity - The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
  • Trunk Strength - The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
  • Visual Color Discrimination - The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
  • Written Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Interests

  • Interest code: RC
    • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
    • Conventional - Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Work Context

  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets - 85% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Standing - 82% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions - 73% responded “Every day.”
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled - 75% responded “Every day.”
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable - 71% responded “Every day.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate - 53% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls - 62% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Time Pressure - 47% responded “Every day.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures - 50% responded “Every day.”
  • Contact With Others - 41% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment - 28% responded “Important.”
  • Consequence of Error - 41% responded “Extremely serious.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team - 46% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks - 47% responded “Very important.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions - 41% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making - 50% responded “Every day.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety - 37% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions - 32% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Spend Time Walking and Running - 29% responded “Less than half the time.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results - 33% responded “Very important results.”
  • Exposed to Contaminants - 33% responded “Never.”
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled - 50% responded “Every day.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others - 46% responded “Important.”
  • Degree of Automation - 32% responded “Completely automated.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work - 27% responded “A lot of freedom.”

Education

Percentage of RespondentsEducation Level Required
61%High school diploma or equivalent
23%Less than high school diploma
11%Some college, no degree

Work Styles

  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Independence - Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Self Control - Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Stress Tolerance - Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Concern for Others - Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Social Orientation - Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Innovation - Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Work Values

  • Support - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
  • Relationships - Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
  • Working Conditions - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Wages & Trends

  • Median wages (2017)
    • $14.14 hourly, $29,410 annual
  • Employment (2016)
    • 20,000 employees
  • Projected growth (2016-2026)
    • Little or no change (-1% to 1%)
  • Projected job openings (2016-2026)
    • 2,200

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