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Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay
SOC Code: 49-2095.00

Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.

Sample of reported job titles: Electrical and Instrumentation Technician (E & I Technician), Electrical Technician, Instrument and Control Technician (I & C Technician), Instrumentation and Control Technician (I&C Technician), Relay Technician, Substation Electrician, Substation Mechanic, Substation Technician, Substation Wireman, Wireman


  • Inspect and test equipment and circuits to identify malfunctions or defects, using wiring diagrams and testing devices such as ohmmeters, voltmeters, or ammeters.
  • Prepare and maintain records detailing tests, repairs, and maintenance.
  • Consult manuals, schematics, wiring diagrams, and engineering personnel to troubleshoot and solve equipment problems and to determine optimum equipment functioning.
  • Analyze test data to diagnose malfunctions, to determine performance characteristics of systems, or to evaluate effects of system modifications.
  • Open and close switches to isolate defective relays, performing adjustments or repairs.
  • Notify facility personnel of equipment shutdowns.
  • Repair, replace, and clean equipment and components such as circuit breakers, brushes, and commutators.
  • Run signal quality and connectivity tests for individual cables, and record results.
  • Maintain inventories of spare parts for all equipment, requisitioning parts as necessary.
  • Construct, test, maintain, and repair substation relay and control systems.
  • Test insulators and bushings of equipment by inducing voltage across insulation, testing current, and calculating insulation loss.
  • Schedule and supervise the construction and testing of special devices and the implementation of unique monitoring or control systems.
  • Schedule and supervise splicing or termination of cables in color-code order.
  • Test oil in circuit breakers and transformers for dielectric strength, refilling oil periodically.
  • Disconnect voltage regulators, bolts, and screws, and connect replacement regulators to high-voltage lines.

Technology Skills

  • Analytical or scientific software - Fluke Corporation FlukeView Forms; OMICRON Test Universe
  • Compliance software - Megger PowerDB
  • Computer aided design CAD software - Autodesk AutoCAD
  • Internet browser software - Web browser software
  • Office suite software - Microsoft Office
  • Spreadsheet software - Microsoft Excel
  • Word processing software - Microsoft Word

Tools Used

  • Adjustable wrenches - Adjustable hand wrenches
  • Alternating current AC arc welder - Alternating current AC electric welders
  • Ammeters - Bench ammeters; Clamp ammeters; Volt-ammeters
  • Bench drilling machine - Bench drills
  • Bench vises
  • Calipers - Vernier calipers
  • Claw hammer - Nailing hammers
  • Cold chisels - Hand guard cold chisels
  • Die stocks - Heavy duty die stocks
  • Drill bit set - Twist drill bits
  • Electronics pliers - Diagonal cutting electronics pliers
  • Fire extinguishers - Electrical fire extinguishers
  • Gas welding or brazing or cutting apparatus - Oxyacetylene welders
  • Hacksaw - Heavy-duty hacksaws
  • Insulation resistance meters - Insulation resistance testers
  • Jigsaw - Portable electric jigsaws
  • Ladders - Stepladders
  • Locking pliers - Multigrip pliers; Vise grip pliers
  • Manlift or personnel lift - Lifting platforms
  • Metal shearing machine - Sheet metal guillotines
  • Micrometers - Digital micrometers
  • Multimeters - Digital multimeters
  • Ohmmeters - Analog ohmmeters; Digital ohmmeters
  • Oscilloscopes - Digital oscilloscopes
  • Phasemeters - Phase rotation indicators
  • Portable data input terminals - Handheld dataloggers
  • Power drills - Portable electric drills
  • Power grinders - Portable electric grinders
  • Power riveter - Pop riveters
  • Power saws - Portable electric saws
  • Precision file - Precision file sets
  • Pullers - Bearing pullers
  • Punches or nail sets or drifts - Pin punches
  • Radiation detectors - Radiation meters
  • Ratchets - Ratchet sets
  • Reamer - Precision reamers
  • Relay tester - Relay test sets
  • Saws - Wood saws
  • Screwdrivers - Slot screwdrivers
  • Sockets - Socket wrenches
  • Soldering iron - Soldering guns
  • Spanner wrenches - Adjustable pin spanner wrenches
  • T handle tap wrenches
  • Thermal imager - Handheld thermal imagers
  • Threading taps - Tap sets
  • Tinners snips - Tin snips
  • Voltage and current meter calibrator - Universal calibrators
  • Voltage or current meters - Bench voltmeters; Light emitting diode LED voltage tester; Neon voltage testers; Series solenoid voltage testers


  • Mechanical - Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  • Engineering and Technology - Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
  • Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
  • Public Safety and Security - Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Computers and Electronics - Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
  • Design - Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
  • Physics - Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
  • Building and Construction - Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  • Education and Training - Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.


  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Equipment Maintenance - Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
  • Repairing - Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
  • Troubleshooting - Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
  • Reading Comprehension - Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
  • Operation Monitoring - Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
  • Quality Control Analysis - Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Systems Analysis - Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
  • Time Management - Managing one's own time and the time of others.


  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness - The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Written Comprehension - The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Control Precision - The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
  • Finger Dexterity - The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
  • Visual Color Discrimination - The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
  • Deductive Reasoning - The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Flexibility of Closure - The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
  • Inductive Reasoning - The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Manual Dexterity - The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
  • Perceptual Speed - The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
  • Written Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
  • Category Flexibility - The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
  • Far Vision - The ability to see details at a distance.
  • Selective Attention - The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
  • Visualization - The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.


  • Interest code: RC
    • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
    • Conventional - Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Work Context

  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets - 98% responded “Every day.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions - 91% responded “Every day.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate - 79% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Contact With Others - 75% responded “Constant contact with others.”
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable - 65% responded “Every day.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team - 74% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Consequence of Error - 85% responded “Extremely serious.”
  • Physical Proximity - 58% responded “Very close (near touching).”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety - 69% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others - 71% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Electronic Mail - 68% responded “Every day.”
  • Telephone - 59% responded “Every day.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results - 66% responded “Very important results.”
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather - 49% responded “Every day.”
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions - 62% responded “Every day.”
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks - 54% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures - 42% responded “Every day.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making - 64% responded “Every day.”
  • Time Pressure - 57% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled - 47% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls - 41% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Exposed to Contaminants - 40% responded “Every day.”
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment - 46% responded “Every day.”
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting - 36% responded “Every day.”
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled - 38% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Standing - 31% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week - 66% responded “40 hours.”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results - 32% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work - 32% responded “Some freedom.”
  • Exposed to High Places - 47% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Outdoors, Under Cover - 34% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions - 36% responded “Some freedom.”
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment - 38% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection - 58% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Level of Competition - 31% responded “Moderately competitive.”
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions - 35% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings - 28% responded “Every day.”
  • Letters and Memos - 33% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Spend Time Walking and Running - 33% responded “Less than half the time.”


Percentage of RespondentsEducation Level Required
50%Post-secondary certificate
28%Associate's degree
11%Some college, no degree

Work Styles

  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Stress Tolerance - Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Independence - Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Concern for Others - Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Leadership - Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Self Control - Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Innovation - Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
  • Social Orientation - Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Work Values

  • Support - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
  • Independence - Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
  • Working Conditions - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Wages & Trends

  • Median wages (2017)
    • $37.70 hourly, $78,410 annual
  • Employment (2016)
    • 23,000 employees
  • Projected growth (2016-2026)
    • Slower than average (2% to 4%)
  • Projected job openings (2016-2026)
    • 2,100

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