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Occupation Information
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SOC Code: 51-3011.00

Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods.

Sample of reported job titles: Baker, Bakery Clerk, Bakery Manager, Cake Decorator, Dough Mixer, Machine Operator, Mixer, Pastry Chef, Processor, Scaler


  • Check products for quality and identify damaged or expired goods.
  • Set oven temperatures and place items into hot ovens for baking.
  • Combine measured ingredients in bowls of mixing, blending, or cooking machinery.
  • Place dough in pans, molds, or on sheets and bake in production ovens or on grills.
  • Set time and speed controls for mixing machines, blending machines, or steam kettles so that ingredients will be mixed or cooked according to instructions.
  • Measure or weigh flour or other ingredients to prepare batters, doughs, fillings, or icings, using scales or graduated containers.
  • Observe color of products being baked and adjust oven temperatures, humidity, or conveyor speeds accordingly.
  • Check the quality of raw materials to ensure that standards and specifications are met.
  • Check equipment to ensure that it meets health and safety regulations and perform maintenance or cleaning, as necessary.
  • Adapt the quantity of ingredients to match the amount of items to be baked.
  • Apply glazes, icings, or other toppings to baked goods, using spatulas or brushes.
  • Decorate baked goods, such as cakes or pastries.
  • Roll, knead, cut, or shape dough to form sweet rolls, pie crusts, tarts, cookies, or other products.
  • Direct or coordinate bakery deliveries.
  • Order or receive supplies or equipment.
  • Prepare or maintain inventory or production records.
  • Operate slicing or wrapping machines.
  • Develop new recipes for baked goods.

Technology Skills

  • Analytical or scientific software - Axxya Systems Nutritionist Pro; EGS CALCMENU; SweetWARE nutraCoster Professional
  • Data base user interface and query software - At Your Service Software CostGuard; Barrington Software CookenPro; Culinary Software Services ChefTec
  • Desktop publishing software - SoftCafe MenuPro
  • Electronic mail software - Email software
  • Enterprise resource planning ERP software - Afcom Datasafe Computer Services FlexiBake; Sage 100 ERP; SweetWARE SmallPICS; TwinPeaks Software Visual Z-Bake (see all 7 examples)
  • Internet browser software - Web browser software
  • Inventory management software - SweetWARE stockCoster
  • Materials requirements planning logistics and supply chain software - Enggist & Grandjean EGS F&B Control
  • Office suite software - Microsoft Office
  • Presentation software - Microsoft PowerPoint
  • Spreadsheet software - Microsoft Excel
  • Time accounting software - ADP Enterprise eTIME
  • Word processing software - Microsoft Word

Tools Used

  • Air brushes - Cake decorating air brushes
  • Air compressors - Portable air compressors
  • Air conveyors - Pneumatic conveyors
  • Bar code reader equipment - Barcode scanners
  • Belt conveyors - Industrial kitchen belt conveyors
  • Blast freezers - Blast chillers
  • Blow torch - Propane torches
  • Cake decorating equipment or moulds - Cake decorating combs; Cake decorating palette knives; Rose nails; Textured mats (see all 13 examples)
  • Cappuccino or espresso machines - Cappuccino makers; Espresso makers
  • Cash registers - Electronic cash registers
  • Cleaning brushes - Bench brushes
  • Coating machines - Icing machines; Pan greasers
  • Commercial use bain maries - Bain maries
  • Commercial use blenders - Industrial kitchen food blenders
  • Commercial use broilers - Industrial kitchen broilers
  • Commercial use cake or pie pans - Commercial cake pans; Commercial pie pans; Pan liners
  • Commercial use coffee grinders - Commercial coffee grinders
  • Commercial use coffee or iced tea makers - Commercial coffeemakers
  • Commercial use convection ovens - Commercial kitchen convection ovens
  • Commercial use cutlery - Chefs' knives; Paring knives; Pastry wheels; Serrated knives (see all 11 examples)
  • Commercial use deep fryers - Doughnut fryers; Open fat kettles
  • Commercial use dishwashers - Dishwashing machines
  • Commercial use dough machines - Dough laminators
  • Commercial use food choppers or cubers or dicers - Food dicers
  • Commercial use food grinders - Bread crumbers; Nut grinders
  • Commercial use food processors - Commercial kitchen food processors
  • Commercial use food slicers - Bread slicers; Cake dividers; Cake levelers
  • Commercial use food warmers - Chocolate warmers; Dough proofers; Food warmers; Hot cases
  • Commercial use graters - Food graters; Fruit zesters
  • Commercial use griddles - Industrial kitchen griddles
  • Commercial use grills - Commercial food grilling equipment
  • Commercial use heat lamps - Infrared food heating lamps; Sugar lamps
  • Commercial use high pressure steamers - Pressurized steam cookers
  • Commercial use icing sets or bags - Cake decorating tips; Cake decorating tubes; Pastry bags; Squeeze bottles
  • Commercial use juicers - Juice extractors
  • Commercial use ladles - Commercial baking ladles
  • Commercial use measuring cups - Dry ingredient measuring cups; Liquid ingredient measuring cups; Measuring spoons
  • Commercial use microwave ovens - Commercial kitchen microwave ovens
  • Commercial use molds - Bakers' couches; Baking frames; Tart rings; Tart tampers (see all 11 examples)
  • Commercial use ovens - Deck ovens; Direct gas fired ovens; Steam injected ovens; Tunnel ovens (see all 7 examples)
  • Commercial use peelers - Produce peelers
  • Commercial use pizza ovens - Pretzel ovens
  • Commercial use ranges - Cooking burners; Hot plates
  • Commercial use rice cookers - Rice cookers
  • Commercial use rolling pins - Dough dockers; Rolling pins
  • Commercial use scales - Balance scales; Digital scales; Portion scales; Weigh hoppers
  • Commercial use scoops - Cookie scoops; Flour scoops
  • Commercial use smokers or smoke ovens - Industrial kitchen food smokers
  • Commercial use steamers - Bagel kettles; Steam kettles
  • Commercial use strainers - China caps; Chinois; Kitchen strainers; Skimmers (see all 5 examples)
  • Commercial use toasters - Electric salamanders; Industrial toasters
  • Commercial use waffle irons - Waffle irons
  • Commercial use whisks - Commercial food whisks
  • Cookie cutters - Bakery cookie cutters
  • Cooking machinery - Depanning machines; Egg breaking machines
  • Cooling machine - Cooling tunnels; Pan cooling towers
  • Crushing machinery - Sugar/spice pulverizers
  • Dehydrating machinery - Food drying equipment
  • Desktop computers
  • Domestic apple corer - Fruit corers
  • Domestic baking pans - Bread pans; Pullman loaf pans; Ramekins
  • Domestic baking sheets - Baking sheets
  • Domestic biscuit cutters - Biscuit dough cutters; Doughnut cutters
  • Domestic bread slicing guide - Pastry slicing jigs
  • Domestic cooling racks - Food cooling racks
  • Domestic double boilers - Double boilers
  • Domestic dough press - Manual dough presses
  • Domestic food scrapers - Dough scrapers
  • Domestic kitchen funnels - Pastry filling funnels
  • Domestic kitchen or food thermometers - Candy thermometers; Digital food thermometers; Dough thermometers; Refrigerator thermometers
  • Domestic kitchen spatulas - Bowl scrapers; Icing spreaders; Perforated grill spatulas; Straight spatulas (see all 5 examples)
  • Domestic kitchen timers - Digital kitchen timers
  • Domestic kitchen tongs - Kitchen tongs
  • Domestic kitchen wire whips - Wire whips
  • Domestic knife sharpeners - Honing steels; Sharpening stones
  • Domestic mandolin - Mandolines
  • Domestic muffin pans - Bakery muffin pans
  • Domestic pastry brush - Pastry brushes
  • Domestic pizza cutters - Pizza cutters
  • Domestic sifter - Ingredient sifters
  • Domestic strainers or colanders - Colanders
  • Domestic tortilla bakers - Tortilla grills
  • Domestic vegetable brush - Vegetable cleaning brushes
  • Domestic whipped cream maker - Cream whippers; Whipped cream machines
  • Domestic wooden oven paddle - Oven peels
  • Double arm kneading mixers - Continuous kneading machines; Horizontal dough mixers; Planetary mixers
  • Filling machinery - Cake depositors; Pastry filling machines
  • Fire blankets - Fire suppression blankets
  • Fire extinguishers - Kitchen fire extinguishers
  • Forklifts - Lift trucks
  • Forming machine - Automatic dough presses; Bagel dividers; Rotary molders; Tartlet machines (see all 20 examples)
  • Hand sprayers - Spray bottles; Sprayers
  • Hand trucks or accessories - Hand trucks
  • Helical blade mixer - Spiral mixers; Tilt mixers
  • Hoists - Dough trough hoists
  • Ice cream machines
  • Ice dispensers - Ice machines
  • Ice shaver machines or accessories - Ice shaver
  • Ink cartridges - Edible-ink cartridges
  • Laser printers - Computer laser printers
  • Lifts - Oven loaders
  • Notebook computers - Laptop computers
  • Pallet trucks - Pallet jacks
  • Preduster - Doughnut tumblers; Flour dusters
  • Processing tanks - Fermentation tanks
  • Razor knives - Box cutters
  • Remote reading thermometers - Probe thermometers
  • Rulers - Measuring sticks
  • Single screw mixers - Fork mixers
  • Slicing machinery - Guillotine cutters; Reciprocating blade slicers
  • Spice or salt or pepper shakers - Sugar shakers
  • Tablet computers
  • Walk in freezers - Industrial freezing equipment
  • Walk in refrigerators - Industrial refrigeration equipment
  • Wrapping machinery - Wrapping machines


  • Production and Processing - Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
  • Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
  • Food Production - Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
  • Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.


  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Active Learning - Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Time Management - Managing one's own time and the time of others.


  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Speech Recognition - The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Visual Color Discrimination - The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness - The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
  • Category Flexibility - The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
  • Control Precision - The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
  • Deductive Reasoning - The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Finger Dexterity - The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Manual Dexterity - The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
  • Perceptual Speed - The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
  • Selective Attention - The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
  • Speech Clarity - The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
  • Written Comprehension - The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.


  • Interest code: RC
    • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
    • Conventional - Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Work Context

  • Contact With Others - 74% responded “Constant contact with others.”
  • Spend Time Standing - 60% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Time Pressure - 62% responded “Every day.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions - 66% responded “Every day.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work - 67% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions - 46% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate - 44% responded “Very important.”
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets - 78% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls - 62% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures - 69% responded “Every day.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team - 48% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings - 64% responded “Every day.”
  • Telephone - 46% responded “Every day.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results - 36% responded “Very important results.”
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled - 64% responded “Every day.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety - 42% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions - 44% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making - 48% responded “Every day.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others - 37% responded “Very important.”
  • Deal With External Customers - 38% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Spend Time Walking and Running - 40% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week - 59% responded “40 hours.”
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment - 39% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Physical Proximity - 32% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results - 35% responded “High responsibility.”
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks - 34% responded “Very important.”


Percentage of RespondentsEducation Level Required
58%High school diploma or equivalent
25%Less than high school diploma
9%Some college, no degree

Work Styles

  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Stress Tolerance - Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Concern for Others - Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Self Control - Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Independence - Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Social Orientation - Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
  • Leadership - Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Innovation - Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Work Values

  • Achievement - Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
  • Independence - Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
  • Support - Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Wages & Trends

  • Median wages (2017)
    • $12.35 hourly, $25,690 annual
  • Employment (2016)
    • 191,000 employees
  • Projected growth (2016-2026)
    • Average (5% to 9%)
  • Projected job openings (2016-2026)
    • 29,100

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